Monday, December 2, 2019

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water Essay Example

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water Paper Uncertainty in measuring time was  ±0. 01s according to the stopwatch but while measuring mass you have to first look at the time in stopwatch and then the mass in the electronic balance and because humans cannot react instantly it is estimated to be  ±1s. Uncertainty in measuring mass of the water was  ±0. 1g because it was measured using a weighing machine with the  ±0. 1g uncertainty. The graph of mass of water evaporated over time is linear because the best fit line passes through all error bars. From the calculations the specific latent heat of vaporization of water is calculated to be 2500 J/g  ±60 J/g. The literature value of specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J/g, which is quite low. The total percent error is 10. 6% and the total percent uncertainty is 2. 5% which is quite low compared to the percentage error. 2. 5% uncertainty means the final result can be  ±2. 5% off. That means the total error caused by uncertainties is 2.5%, rest is from systematic errors. One of the biggest systematic errors could be the heat loss from the water to the atmosphere. A well-insulated plastic kettle was used to boil the water so there will be minimum heat loss from water to kettle and kettle to surroundings. If the heat is lost to the surroundings from water, it means that the power supplied by the kettle is not completely used to boil water as it is lost in the surrounding so the power supplied is less than 1000W. We will write a custom essay sample on Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer While recording the mass of water, the mass of the water in the electronic balance was not constantly decreasing. Sometimes it increased, sometimes it decreased slowly and sometimes rapidly and because of this there was a high error in collecting data. An electronic balance with high mass capturing should have been used for better results. The electronic balance used did not have a wide base and the kettle used to boil water was overturning it which also can result in high error. An electronic balance with wide base should be used for more accurate results.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Schedule a layout for flexible manufacturing layout (FMS) using the arena software The WritePass Journal

Schedule a layout for flexible manufacturing layout (FMS) using the arena software Chapter Two: Schedule a layout for flexible manufacturing layout (FMS) using the arena software Chapter One: IntroductionWhat is Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)?What is Simulation?Why use Simulation?Project ScopeProject AimLearning ARENA simulation SoftwareProject ObjectivesReport StructureChapter Two: Literature ReviewSeven types of wastei)  Ã‚  Waste from over production:ii)  Ã‚  Waste of waiting time:iii)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Transportation waste:iv)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Processing waste:v)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Waste of motion:vi)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Waste from product defects :vii)   Inventory waste:JIT, Kanban and Lean ManufacturingJust in Time (JIT)  JIT CONCEPTGOALS OF JITOBJECTIVES OF JITChapter Three:The Problem DefinedChapter Four: Simulation Model DevelopmentChapter Five: Model Validation and CritiqueChapter Six: Analysis and SynthesisChapter Seven: Conclusions and Recommendation for Further WorkReferencesRelated Chapter One: Introduction What is Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)? Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is defined as the flexibility of the manufacturing line or process in order to archive the aim to shorten the lead time to produce a product so that the product can be delivered on time to the customer and also can save cost. It has to be approachable so that the results and effects can be seen and useful for manufacturing line. An  Industrial Flexible Manufacturing System  (FMS) consists of  robot, Computer-controlled Machines, Numerical controlled machines (CNC),  Instrumentation devices, computers, sensors. The use of robots in the section of manufacturing industries provides a variety of benefits ranging from high utilization to high volume of productivity. Each robotic cell will be located along a material handling system such as a conveyor or automatic guided vehicle. The production of each part or work-piece will require a different combination of manufacturing nodes. The movement of parts from one node to another is done through the material handling system. At the end of part processing, the finished parts will be routed to an automatic inspection node, and subsequently unloaded from the Flexible Manufacturing System. They provide better efficiency, flexibility and adaptability which are lacking in traditional manufacturing systems. FMS are designed to combine the advantages of mass producti on systems (efficiency) and job-shops (flexibility) in one system. (Tunali 1995) The reason why FMS is very powerful is because of its ability to produce different types of quality products in any order with small-batch sizes without the time consuming changing machine setups. The benefits and drawbacks of implementing FMS is shown in table 1. Although large investment, long planning, development time and automated controller like CNC machines are required, most manufacturers prefer attempt to implement FMS to compete with other manufacturers. Other operational objectives such as the maximization of flexibility, sustainability, reactivity (or the ability to handle contingencies), availability and productivity should also be taken into account in particular for FMS designed to do batch jobs, small and medium-sized series in addition to mass production volumes. Flexibility is a particular important design objective implying that  the same production line can be used for different products, either sequentially or simultaneously without major transformation costs. Benefits Drawbacks Reduction in labour costs Very expensive Requires less space Complicated manufacturing system Increases efficiency Pre planning activity is substantial Increases productivity Adaption of product changes is limited Improves the quality of products Manufacturing lead time is less Reduces work in progress inventory. Table 2: Benefits and drawbacks of FMS What is Simulation? Simulation represents the physical processes of systems on a virtual computer model where the behaviour of such a model resembles as much as possible for the real scenario. Simulation is a very useful tool with increasing importance in the current advanced industrial world. Simulation refers to a broad collection of methods and applications that virtually imitate real life situations, or those which are yet to be real. The more accurate and effective a simulation model is, the more realistic are the results obtained and predictions concluded from that specific simulation model. In fact, â€Å"simulation† can be an extremely general term since the idea applies across many fields, industries, and applications. These days, simulation is more popular and powerful then ever since computers and software are better than ever. Computer simulation deals with models of systems. A system is a facility or process, either actual or planned, such as: i)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A manufacturing plant with machine, people, transport devices, conveyor belts and storage space. ii)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A bank with different customers, servers, and facilities like teller windows, automated teller machine (ATM), load desks, and safety deposit boxes. iii)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An airport with departing passengers checking in, going through security, going to the departure gate, and boarding; departing flight contending for push back tugs and runway slots; arriving flights contending for runways, gates, and arrival crew; arriving passengers moving to baggage claim and waiting for their bags; and the baggage-handling system dealing with delays, security issues, and equipment failure. iv)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An emergency facility in a hospital, including personnel, rooms, equipment, supplies, and patient transport. v)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A central insurance claims office where a lot of paperwork is received, reviewed, copied, filed, and mailed by people and machines and etc. Why use Simulation? In an effort to reduce costs and time consumption, simulation is one of the most powerful analysis tools available for the design and operation of complex processes or systems. This is because a computer simulation can provide the result on how effective a machine can run without the need of high capital investment and long time consumption to build a actual model on the floor plan by just getting the same results. Weaknesses and problems that may occur in the workstation such as material handling, idle of machine, bottleneck situation can be showed by using the simulation. In addition, the improvement of the production layout can be easily done from the simulation output showed in meeting the operating target. Besides that, simulation also helps reduce costs, avoid catastrophes tragedy and improve performance of the system. Furthermore, to make changes of a manufacturing plant in real life is very expensive and performance after the particular changes is not guarantee. Hence, it is always better to simulate the changes and compare the results before implementing it. Expensive equipment and complicated designs can be modelled using computer software to detect any inconsistency or possible failure modes. This reduces the costs associated significantly as it helps avoid or reduce the expensive and potentially wasted cost of bad designs or wrong equipment. An example to illustrate this would be the complex simulation models created by aviation industries such as Airbus or Boeing. The sustainability and life time of a plane can be modelled by using simulation in order to evaluate the fuselage, performance of engine and other part with different environment or situation. In addition to this, some real time product trials might be impossible as they would consume the single possible use of such products. For example, a bomb or missile can only be used once, and as a result, it won’t be possible to test every single product of such type by trialling it. Simulation plays an important key role here in modelling and simulating the effect and influence of such products while avoiding the destructive and expensive trials. Furthermore, simulation can be used to improve the current process of a system. In other words, it might be possible to optimize and increase the efficiency of an already running system by implementing some changes suggested by engineers, managers, operators or any personnel involved. Having obtained an accurate model, those suggested changes can be initially incorporated in the model to investigate and analyze their consequences and whether they would produce the desired effect or not. Upon validation of the results, an educated decision, backed up by facts, can be taken. Therefore simulation is a tool that can be used by management to aid decision-making especially in costly and heavily investments involved. The other goals of the simulation system are to simulate different production tasks on a given FMS and finally to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of different FMS designs for the same tasks. This last target requires to build up several, new simulation models (George L. KOVACS 1997). One of the most challenging issues faced by today’s manufacturing industry is heavy global competition. In order to compete in an international market, the manufacturers have to produce varieties of products rapidly and flexibly in order to meet the ever increasing market demand Project Scope The purpose of this project is to develop and model a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) layout using ARENA software. The author has to develop a Flexible Manufacturing System and will be able to produce simulations for the different scheduling scenarios. To start of modelling a Flexible Manufacturing System in ARENA software, the author have to put a lot efforts in research through different kinds of mass media like internet, journals, magazines, case study to understand the fundamental concept   and technique of FMS. After researches, the author has to build and simulates the model in ARENA software. From the simulation result, the author has to analyze output and recommended it. Last but not least, the model results will be collected and presented in the project report. Project Aim The aim of this project is to adopt an existing FMS layout and identify the problem or weaknesses in it and make improvement. In order to do that, author has found a piece of journal which contains an existing FMS layout provided with the route and processing time for each parts and components respectively. These informations will be used to generate the simulation in ARENA to monitor its performance such as the total processing time or waiting time and make improvement to it. Learning ARENA simulation Software After few weeks of reading and learning for ARENA simulation software, the author had understood the concept and methodology of simulation using ARENA. In addition, the author had absorbed basic project planning and analysis ideas along with the modelling concepts, which how actual simulation projects ought to proceed. Besides that, the author had familiar with the icons and object about which to used and knew how to generate the animation according to the simulation. Furthermore, author had learnt the varieties of expression or formula such as normal distribution, exponential, triangular, discrete, Poisson distribution. Project Objectives The general objectives of this title is to schedule a layout for flexible manufacturing layout (FMS) using the arena software. The layout must be able to achieve and match the FMS requirement. The main objective can be divided into sub-objective as stated below: To prepare a literature review and understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques used for the Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). To learn ARENA software in order to simulate the FMS model. To select a suitable FMS layout to model. To plan and develop the simulation of the FMS model. To run the model for different data, arrangement, and also to view and improve the efficiency and effectiveness FMS model. To analyze the results obtain from the FMS model. Reproduce the FMS model for improvement. To re-analyze and finalize the findings and conclusions. Report Structure This report divided into seven chapters, reference list, and appendices. The seven chapters consist of introduction, literature review, experimental technique, results and discussion, conclusion, and recommendations for further work.    Chapter 1 Introduction, the author introduces what this project is all about, objectives of this project and also the organization of the dissertation. Chapter 2 Literature review, this chapter explains on what is FMS, the history of FMS, various types of FMS, components of FMS, the benefits and limitations of FMS. The process and examples of FMS application is also included. Chapter 3, highlights on simulation and the ARENA software. The advantages and disadvantages of simulation are discussed in this chapter. The requirement of simulation in manufacturing environment is also included. Chapter 4, this chapter focuses on how the simulation of the model is being built by using ARENA software. The input parameters for the simulation run and model’s features are included. Chapter 5, this chapter is all about the results analysis that is generated from simulation model that have been built in ARENA simulation software. The three scenarios results are then compared. Chapter 6, this is the final chapter of this project where the author will discuss about the problems that are encountered during the simulation. Other than that, the author will also give the conclusion about the whole project and give recommendations for future work. Chapter Two: Literature Review Chapter two aims to reflect on the some topics related to simulation and lean manufacturing which have been pioneered by previous academics and industrialists. It covers the, seven sources of waste, JIT (Just in Time) manufacturing, kanban, lean manufacturing, types of production lines and scheduling environments, simulation and finally some distributions functions available in the simulation model. Figure 1: Original Layout Model of FMS This study has been realized on a model of a hypothetical FMS. By referring to Figure 1, it can be observe that the FMS consists of five multi-purpose CNC machines, each with automatic tool changing capability. Each machine is provided with limited input buffer. Having assumed that each machine will have ample capacity to store the required tools, the issue of tool availability is not considered in developing the model. An important feature of the model is that the machines are not available continuously. They can be subject to unexpected breakdowns. The system is capable of processing more than one part type simultaneously find each part type is associated with a probability of arrival. Each part is processed according to a predetermined sequence of operations. However, the machines that will process these operations are not fixed in advance, rather the routing decisions are made on-line based on current shop floor status data. Job pre-emption is allowed in case of an unexpected mac hine breakdown. The parts are introduced into the system through the loading station. The unloading station is the exit point for all the parts processed in the system. The system also includes a central Work-In-Process-Area (WIPA) to temporarily store the parts when the associated machine buffers reach the full capacity. The parts are transferred within the system by three AGVs each having one unit loading capacity. The place that the idle AGVs will wait for the next request depends on the AGV control policy employed. The model is developed on a microcomputer-based environment using SIMAN.    Part type Probability of Arrival Operation Sequence Processing Time On Alternatives Machine (Minutes) M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 1 20% B 9 0 14 12 0 D 0 10 8 11 13 H 8 0 0 10 14 E 11 12 0 0 9 F 0 7 10 0 9 2 20% B 11 0 7 9 0 C 0 8 0 11 0 A 12 0 10 0 0 D 0 10 8 6 7 G 6 7 0 0 8 3 10% F 0 8 6 0 7 C 0 10 0 8 0 B 9 0 6 7 0 D 0 8 10 9 11 4 10% C 0 7 0 6 0 A 9 0 12 0 0 I 0 0 6 8 0 B 8 0 9 7 0 G 11 10 0 0 12 5 20% E 7 8 0 0 10 F 0 10 8 0 11 A 7 0 9 0 0 I 0 0 6 8 0 D 0 8 9 11 13 6 20% H 7 0 0 8 10 B 10 0 8 12 0 C 0 11 0 9 0 G 10 8 0 0 6 E 6 8 0 0 10 I 0 0 10 7 0 Total 100% 30 Operations 141 150 156 159 150 Table 1: Part process Plan As for the experimental conditions, it is assumed that the FMS studied in this paper can simultaneously process 6 types of parts. As it is seen in Table 1, the number of operations for each part ranges from 4 to 6. The three AGVs travel at a speed of 200 feet per minute, The time required for loading and unloading an AGV is one minute irrespective of part and operation type. For each experiment, the performance data on mean flow time is collected for a simulation period of 15360 minutes (16 days with 2 eight hour shifts) by generating 10 independent replications of the model. For each replication, the statistics are collected after a warm-up period of 2880 minutes (3 days with 2 eight hour shifts). Seven types of waste The word â€Å"waste† in manufacturing was defined as anything other than the MINIMUM amount of equipment, materials, parts, space and workers’ time, which are ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL(to ADD VALUE to the product) (M.K.Khan, 2010).It is an very unlikely event to occur because manufacturing waste does not add value to product. After years of research and improvement job has been done, Toyota identified seven source of waste in manufacturing plant, which is as follow : i)  Ã‚  Waste from over production: This is considered as the most common waste found in manufacturing line. Mistakes occurred between marketing department and production department can lead to over production for demand and supply and cause delay for other parts or products. ii)  Ã‚  Waste of waiting time: Usually it’s easy to identify. Time is wasted when operators just watching the machine to run or waiting for preceding parts to arrive. Bottleneck in production line is also considered as time wasting when all the parts are stacked while waiting to be processed. iii)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Transportation waste: Bad housekeeping can cause long distance transportation waste or even double or triple material or part handling. Example: raw material stored in warehouse before it is brought to the line. iv)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Processing waste: Additional process could lengthen a product or part processing time with unnecessary additional process. v)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Waste of motion: Waste of motion is whatever time is not spent in adding value to the product should be eliminated. Poor machine or work layout could result to serious waste of motion. vi)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Waste from product defects : When defects occurred at on station, other waste will also be raised up such as longer transportation time, waiting time, and scrapped or rework product may be produced as well. vii)   Inventory waste: Inventory is also known as the root of all waste. It hides problems such as poor quality of product, machine breakdown and so on. It also lowers the level of inventory to expose those problems. Therefore, human always try to reduce or think a better way to handle inventory as shown in table 2. Zero defects Zero setup time Zero inventories Zero part handling Zero breakdowns Zero lead time Lot size of one Match products to customer requirement. Table 2: Target for eliminating waste JIT, Kanban and Lean Manufacturing Just in Time (JIT)   The basic approach to the â€Å"Just-in-Time† (JIT) production system is to reduce product costs through the elimination of waste. In a production facility waste can be defined as defects, stockpiles, queues, idleness and delays. The manufacturing philosophy of JIT is well defined by the following analogy. Inventory is depicted by water, covering a bed of rocks in a lake. The rocks and the lakebed are representative of problems and the manufacturing floor, respectively. Lowering the water level will expose the rocks on the lakebed (Riggs, 1987). This is the basic theory behind the JIT production system. By eliminating inventory stockpiles on a plant floor, operating inefficiencies can be exposed. Therefore, producing or receiving inventory â€Å"just in time† for the next production process can eliminate stockpile inventory. This report will detail the history of the â€Å"Just-in-Time† production system. We will follow the JIT system from its conception in 1940 to its success today. The characteristics and advantages of the JIT production system will be further outlined. We will also summarize the specific requirements for implementation of this system. Throughout this document we will aim to provide internet links, which will provide more information on the topic. Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing is a Japanese management philosophy applied in manufacturing. Essentially it involves having the right items with the right quality and quantity in the right place at the right time. Today, more and more North American firms are considering the JIT approach in response to an ever more competitive environment. The ability to manage inventory (which often accounts for as much as 80 percent of product cost) to coincide with market demand or changing product specifications can substantially boost profits and improve a manufacturer’s competitive position by reducing inventories and waste. Just In Time (JIT) is a management philosophy, an integrated approach to optimize the use of a company’s resou rces, namely, capital, equipment, and labor. The goal of JIT is the total elimination of waste in   the manufacturing process. JIT CONCEPT JIT may be viewed as a production system, designed to improve overall productivity through the Elimination of waste and which leads to improved quality. JIT is simple, efficient and minimize waste. The concept to produce and deliver finished goods just in time to be sold, subassembles just in time to be assembled into sub assembled and purchase materials Just- in time to be transformed into fabricated parts, is the concept behind JIT. It is dependent on the balance between the stability of the user’s scheduled requirement and supplier’s manufacturing flexibility. GOALS OF JIT A system whose goal is to optimize process and procedures by continuously pursuing waste reduction. It consists of 7 W’s to pursue the waste reduction. The wastes identified for reduction through continuous improvements in production process are: OBJECTIVES OF JIT The basic objectives include: n Low manufacturing and distribution cost. n Reduced labor (both direct and indirect) n Higher degree of product quality and less defects. n Effective use of Working capital. n Decrease in production lead-time. n Reduced investments for in-process inventory. n Increased productivity. n Reduced space requirements. n Faster reaction to demand. Change i.e. more flexibility to customer demand. n Reduced overheads.    Chapter Three: The Problem Defined Chapter Four: Simulation Model Development Chapter three demonstrates the process of preparing and constructing the simulation model. It will then be run and produce the results based on the data or assumption made in the simulation. It also serves as a reference for whoever uses or modifies the model in the future. Every steps will be shown and organized step by step for the ease of reading for reader. Before starting creating the simulation model, author has spent a significant amount of time to learn how to program and create a simulation model using ARENA based on the data provided in literature review. This involved identifying which machine has the longest processing time and processes the most products. The book that author referred to was â€Å"Simulation with Arena† and listed in the reference list. After all the data had been collected and gathered, now move to the development of the simulation model using ARENA. Firstly, run the ARENA software and it will show a blank page as shown is figure 1. Figure 1: Blank page of ARENA Secondly, drag and place the necessary object into the blank page and arrange it which is shown is figure 2.    Chapter Five: Model Validation and Critique Chapter Six: Analysis and Synthesis Chapter Seven: Conclusions and Recommendation for Further Work References George L. KOVACS, S. K., Ildiko KMECS (1997). Simulation of FMS with Application of Reuse and Object-Oriented Technology. 13 -1 Tunali, S. (1995). Simulation For Evaluating Machine And AGV Scheduling Rules In An FMS Environment. 433 438. Khan.M.K (2010). Manufacturing Planning and Control. Lecture notes distributed for ENG4087M, Just-In-Time Systems(Lean Production), SOEDT, 1st Oct 2010. W. David Kelton, Randall P. Sadowski, nancy B. Swets, 2010, Simulation with Arena, 5th edition, Mcgraw-Hill International Edition, Avenue of the America, new York.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

What You Should Know About Travel Writing

What You Should Know About Travel Writing Travel writing is a form of creative nonfiction in which the narrators encounters with foreign places serve as the dominant subject. Also called  travel literature. All travel writing- because it is writing- is made in the sense of being constructed, says Peter Hulme, but travel writing cannot be made up without losing its designation (quoted by  Tim Youngs in  The Cambridge Introduction to Travel Writing, 2013). Notable contemporary travel writers in English include  Paul Theroux, Susan Orlean, Bill Bryson,  Pico Iyer,  Rory MacLean,  Mary Morris, Dennison Berwick,  Jan Morris, Tony Horwitz,  Jeffrey Tayler, and Tom Miller, among countless others. Examples of Travel Writing By the Railway Side by Alice MeynellLists and Anaphora in Bill Brysons Neither Here Nor ThereLists in William Least Heat-Moons Place DescriptionLondon From a Distance by Ford Madox FordNiagara Falls by Rupert BrookeNights in London by Thomas BurkeOf Trave, by Francis BaconOf Travel by Owen FellthamRochester by Nathaniel Hawthorne Examples and Observations The best writers in the field [of travel writing] bring to it an indefatigable curiosity, a fierce intelligence that enables them to interpret, and a generous heart that allows them to connect. Without resorting to invention, they make ample use of their imaginations. . . .The travel book itself has a similar grab bag quality. It incorporates the characters and plot line of a novel, the descriptive power of poetry, the substance of a history lesson, the discursiveness of an essay, and the- often inadvertent- self-revelation of a memoir. It revels in the particular while occasionally illuminating the universal. It colors and shapes and fills in gaps. Because it results from displacement, it is frequently funny. It takes readers for a spin (and shows them, usually, how lucky they are). It humanizes the alien. More often than not it celebrates the unsung. It uncovers truths that are stranger than fiction. It gives eyewitness proof of life’s infinite possibilities.(Thomas Swick, N ot a Tourist. The Wilson Quarterly, Winter 2010) Narrators and NarrativesThere exists at the center of travel books like [Graham] Greenes Journey Without Maps or [V.S.] Naipauls An Area of Darkness a mediating consciousness that monitors the journey, judges, thinks, confesses, changes, and even grows. This narrator, so central to what we have come to expect in modern travel writing, is a relatively new ingredient in travel literature, but it is one that irrevocably changed the genre. . . .Freed from strictly chronological, fact-driven narratives, nearly all contemporary travel writers include their own dreams and memories of childhood as well as chunks of historical data and synopses of other travel books. Self reflexivity and instability, both as theme and style, offer the writer a way to show the effects of his or her own presence in a foreign country and to expose the arbitrariness of truth and the absence of norms.(Casey Blanton, Travel Writing: The Self and the World. Routledge, 2002)V.S. Naipaul on Making InquiriesMy books ha ve to be called travel writing, but that can be misleading because in the old days travel writing was essentially done by men describing the routes they were taking. . . . What I do is quite different. I travel on a theme. I travel to make an inquiry. I am not a journalist. I am taking with me the gifts of sympathy, observation, and curiosity that I developed as an imaginative writer. The books I write now, these inquiries, are really constructed narratives.(V.S. Naipaul, interview with Ahmed Rashid, Death of the Novel. The Observer, Feb. 25, 1996) Paul Theroux on the Travelers Mood- Most travel narratives- perhaps all of them, the classics anyway- describe the miseries and splendors of going from one remote place to another. The quest, the getting there, the difficulty of the road is the story; the journey, not the arrival, matters, and most of the time the traveler- the traveler’s mood, especially- is the subject of the whole business. I have made a career out of this sort of slogging and self-portraiture, travel writing as diffused autobiography; and so have many others in the old, laborious look-at-me way that informs travel writing.(Paul Theroux, The Soul of the South. Smithsonian Magazine, July-August 2014)-  Most visitors to coastal Maine know it in the summer. In the nature of visitation, people show up in the season. The snow and ice are a bleak memory now on the long warm days of early summer, but it seems to me that to understand a place best, the visitor needs to see figures in a landscape in all seasons. M aine is a joy in the summer. But the soul of Maine is more apparent in the winter. You see that the population is actually quite small, the roads are empty, some of the restaurants are closed, the houses of the summer people are dark, their driveways unplowed. But Maine out of season is unmistakably a great destination: hospitable, good-humored, plenty of elbow room, short days, dark nights of crackling ice crystals.Winter is a season of recovery and preparation. Boats are repaired, traps fixed, nets mended. â€Å"I need the winter to rest my body,† my friend the lobsterman told me, speaking of how he suspended his lobstering in December and did not resume until April. . . .(Paul Theroux, The Wicked Coast. The Atlantic, June 2011) Susan Orlean on the Journey- To be honest, I view all stories as journeys. Journeys are the essential text of the human experience- the journey from birth to death, from innocence to wisdom, from ignorance to knowledge, from where we start to where we end. There is almost no piece of important writing- the Bible, the Odyssey, Chaucer, Ulysses- that isnt explicitly or implicitly the story of a journey. Even when I dont actually go anywhere for a particular story, the way I report is to immerse myself in something I usually know very little about, and what I experience is the journey toward a grasp of what Ive seen.(Susan Orlean, Introduction to My Kind of Place: Travel Stories from a Woman Whos Been Everywhere. Random House, 2004)- When I went to Scotland for a friends wedding last summer, I didnt plan on firing a gun. Getting into a fistfight, maybe; hurling insults about badly dressed bridesmaids, of course; but I didnt expect to shoot or get shot at. The wedding was taking place in a medieval castle in a speck of a village called Biggar. There was not a lot to do in Biggar, but the caretaker of the castle had skeet-shooting gear, and the male guests announced that before the rehearsal dinner they were going to give it a go. The women were advised to knit or shop or something. I dont know if any of us women actually wanted to join them, but we didnt want to be left out, so we insisted on coming along. . . .(Susan Orlean, opening paragraph of Shooting Party. The New Yorker, September 29, 1999) Jonathan Raban on the Open House- As a literary form, travel writing is a notoriously raffish open house where different genres are likely to end up in the bed. It accommodates the private diary, the essay, the short story, the prose poem, the rough note and polished table talk with indiscriminate hospitality. It freely mixes narrative and discursive writing.(Jonathan Raban, For Love Money: Writing - Reading - Travelling 1968-1987. Picador, 1988)- Travel in its purest form requires no certain destination, no fixed itinerary, no advance reservation and no return ticket, for you are trying to launch yourself onto the haphazard drift of things, and put yourself in the way of whatever changes the journey may throw up. Its when you miss the one flight of the week, when the expected friend fails to show, when the pre-booked hotel reveals itself as a collection of steel joists stuck into a ravaged hillside, when a stranger asks you to share the cost of a hired car to a town whose name youv e never heard, that you begin to travel in earnest.(Jonathan Raban, Why Travel? Driving Home: An American Journey. Pantheon, 2011) The Joy of Travel WritingSome travel writers can become serious to the point of lapsing into good ol American puritanism. . . . What nonsense! I have traveled much in Concord. Good travel writing can be as much about having a good time as about eating grubs and chasing drug lords. . . . [T]ravel is for learning, for fun, for escape, for personal quests, for challenge, for exploration, for opening the imagination to other lives and languages.(Frances Mayes, Introduction to The Best American Travel Writing 2002. Houghton, 2002)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Medium Research Methodology Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Medium Methodology - Research Paper Example A quantitative approach was adopted for this study. It was vital to impose primary demands on the data collection. This is in order to study and know how the British national newspapers have constructed ‘binge drinking’ as a social problem. The research study is primarily and mainly dealing with how have the British national newspapers constructed ‘binge drinking’ as a social problem and not generalized approaches (Iwere, 2010). Additionally, the relationships between the variables will be analyzed in great detail by the research. The analysis will include testing the variation effect within factors which influence the British national newspapers to construct ‘binge drinking’ as a social problem. The approach (quantitative) was the most suitable approach for the study since the research question required needed a statistical answer and solution. Critcher, (pg. 154) stated that a quantitative study approach is often characterized by statistical measurements and figures whereas a qualitative approach is best suited for research questions which require a descriptive solution and answer. The research focused on finding the coverage of a small sample of British newspapers on binge drinking. Consequently, a quantitative paradigm was used to collect data for the research because it is more relevant and suitable. This was made up of newspaper articles which were meant and aimed to illustrate the findings of the study from the perspective of the research participant. To satisfy the demands of depth, the need for detailed information or data about binge drinking and the British media necessitated the use of more newspaper articles. Also, the use of many articles enabled the study to come up with reliable results and information.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

World economies (PHD level) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

World economies (PHD level) - Essay Example The economy had cheap money floating which was invested by the public. The borrowings were then invested in the stocks and securities in the domestic market as well as foreign markets directly opposite to the reason of borrowing. The banks and other institutions lent the money to be invested in land holding but instead it was invested in stock markets (The Lost Decade - Japans Economic Crisis). According to the article ‘The Lost Decade - Japans Economic Crisis,’ the Finance Ministry after realizing this increased the interest rates which caused the stock market to crash big time. The increase in interest rates caused the banks to go in large debt crisis due to huge bad debts. And even those official numbers dont capture the full size of the flood of cheap money. This was also due to the fact that the banks and other institutions were selling bonds in the foreign market with a low interest rate which when swapped into yen, reduced the cost of money to zero. The Japanese banking sector was in crisis and many banks were bailed by the government or the whole banking sector of Japan would have been destroyed. The name Lost Decade was given because the Japanese banks were in no position to lend more money or do capital investment due to huge amounts of bad debts. The economic situation in Japan is now not as bad as the Lost Decade when the economic expansion had just come to an abrupt stop. Unemployment had rose and is still an issue but it is not at a level of crisis like in the Lost Decade. It is argued by many economists that the economic situation in America is on the path of economic crisis like the Lost Decade in Japan. The Federal Reserve of The Fed of US is also lowering the discount rate. As a result of this the growth in the American economy is slowly crawling upwards, the savings are invested in the real-estate which does not make any contribution to the country’s savings and the stock market

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Employee Grievances Essay Example for Free

Employee Grievances Essay In industrial context the word grievance is used in industrial context to designate claims by workers of a Trade Union concerning their individual or collective rights under an applicable collective agreement, individual contract of employment, law, regulations, work rules, custom or usage. Such claims involve questions relating to the interpretation or application of the rules. The term â€Å"Grievance† is used in countries to designate this type of claim, while in some other countries reference is made to disputes over â€Å"right† or â€Å"legal† disputes. The grounds for a grievance may be any measure or situation which concerns the relations between the employers and worker or which affects the conditions of employment of one or several workers in the undertaking when that measure or situation appears contrary to provisions of an applicable collective agreement or of an individual contract of employment, to work rules, to laws or regulations or to the custom or usage of the occupational branch of economy activity or country†. Causes for Grievance Grievances generally arise from the day to day working relations in an undertaking, usually a worker or trade union protest against or act or omission of management that is considered to violate worker rights. Grievances typically arise on such matters like discipline and dismissal, the payment of wages other fringe benefits, working time, over time and time off entitlement, promotions, demotions and transfer, rights deriving from seniority, rights of supervisors and the Union officers, job classification problems, the relationship of works rules to the collective agreement and fulfillment of obligations relating to safety and health as laid down in the agreement. Such grievances, if not dealt with a procedure that secures the respect of parties, can result in embitterment of the working relationship and a climate of industrial strife. Procedure for Settlement: It has been widely recognized that there should be an appropriate procedure through which the grievances of workers may be submitted and settled. This recognition is based both on consideration of fairness and justice, which requires that workers’ claims regarding their rights should receive fair and impartial determination, and on the desire to remove from the area of power conflict a type of dispute that can properly be settled through authoritative determination of the respective rights and obligations of parties. Essence of Model Grievance Procedure: The three cardinal principles of grievance settlement, under the procedure, are; 1. Settlement at the lowest level, 2. Settlement as expeditiously as possible; and 3. Settlement to the satisfaction of the aggrieved Like justice, grievance must not only be settled but also seem to be settled in the eyes of the aggrieved. The Model Grievance Procedure has a three tier system for the settlement at the levels of the 1. immediate supervisor; 2. departmental or factory head; 3. and a bipartite grievance committee representing the management and the union, with a provision for the arbitration appeal to the organization head, and a specified time limit for the resolution process. Views of the National Commission on Labour NCL has recommended that a formal grievance procedure should be introduced in units employing 100 or more workers and they are: 1. There should be a statutory backing for the formulation of an effective grievance procedure which should be simple, flexible, less cumbersome and more or less n the lines of Model Grievance Procedure, 2. It should be time bound and have a limited number of steps namely, approach to the immediate supervisory staff; appeal to the departmental head/manager; and appeal to the bipartite grievance committee representing management and the recognized Union. 3. A grievance procedure should be such that it gives a sense of satisfaction to the individual worker, ensures reasonable exercise of authority to the manager and a sense of participation to Unions, 4. The constitution of the grievance committee should have a provision that in case a unanimous decision is not possible, the unsettled grievance may be referred to arbitration. At the earlier stages the worker should be free to be represented by a co worker and later by an officer of the union, if one exists, 5. It should be introduced in all units employing 100 or more workers. INDISCIPLINE/MISCONDUCT Discipline is the employee self control which prompts him to willingly co- operates with the organizational standards, rules, objectives, etc. Misconduct is the transgression of some established and definite rules where no discrimination is left to the employee. It is violation of rules. Any breach of these rules and discipline may amount to misconduct. It is an act or conduct which is prejudicial to the interest of the employer or is likely to impair the reputation of the employer or create unrest and can be performed even outside the premises of the establishment and beyond duty hours. It is for the management to determine in its Standing Orders as to what shall constitutes acts of misconduct and to define the quantum of punishment for them. Causes of misconduct: †¢ †¢ Unfair labour practices and victimization on the part of employers, like wage diffentials, declaration of payment or non payment of bonus, wrongful works assignments, defective grievance procedure etc., †¢ †¢ Bad service conditions, defective communications by superiors and ineffective leadership lead to indiscipline, †¢ †¢ Poverty, frustration, indebtedness, generally overshadow the minds of the workers, these agitate their minds and often result in indiscipline, †¢ †¢ Generally speaking absenteeism, insubordination, dishonesty and disloyalty, violation of plant rules, gambling, incompetence, damage to machine and property, strikes, etc., all lead to industrial indiscipline. Remedial Measure for Acts of Indiscipline: †¢ †¢ Labour is most important factor of production. Therefore an Organization can prosper only if labour is properly motivated towards the attainment of specific goals. A more humane approach is necessary to motivate them. †¢ †¢ Each worker, as an individual, needs a fair or reasonable wage to maintain himself and his family in good health and spirits. So the wage should be adequate so that the worker may meet the economic needs of his family, †¢ †¢ He Trade Union leadership should be developed from within the rank and file of workers, who would understand their problems and put it up to the management in the right perspective. Disciplinary Action: Indiscipline is the result of many interrelated reasons- economic, psychological, social etc. It needs to be properly handled. The disciplinary action must conform to certain principles e.g. †¢ †¢ The principal of natural justice must guide all enquiries and actions. No biased person to conduct inquiry, †¢ The principal of impartiality or consistency must be followed, †¢ †¢ The disciplinary authority should offer full opportunity to the worker to defend himself . Procedure for Punishment: †¢ Framing and Issuing of Charge sheet †¢ †¢ Receiving the defendants’ Explanation †¢ †¢ Issuing the notice of Inquiry †¢ †¢ Holding the Enquiry †¢ †¢ Findings of the Inquiry Officer †¢ †¢ Decision of the Disciplinary Authority †¢ †¢ Communication of the Order of Punishment Termination of Employment: †¢ †¢ Voluntary abandonment of Service by the Employee †¢ †¢ Resignation by the employee †¢ †¢ Discharge by notice thereof given by the employer †¢ †¢ Discharge or dismissal by the employer as a punishment for misconduct, †¢ †¢ Retirement on reaching the age of superannuation Type of Punishment Under Standing Orders: 1. Censure or Warning 2. Fines 3. Suspension 4. Dismissal Best of Luck.. Sample of labour grievance handling policy in a manufacturing unit: As a matter of Labour Policy name of the company, hereby lays down the following procedure for addressing employees’ grievances 1 An employee who has any grievances viz., (a) A complaint against their supervisor or co-worker (b) Problems related to methods or systems in the production floor (c) Inconveniences caused due to work environment (d) Disturbances caused by personal problems in the factory premises etc. 2 Apart from the above the management may take other problems which it may consider relevant 3 The aggrieved worker shall inform their problems in writing to any one of the following Factory Manager Technical Manager Admin Officer Welfare Officer 4 The gist of grievances of the employee shall be recorded in Employee’s Grievance Register mentioning the date and reference number if any 5 The registered complaints will be addressed within 48 hours 6 Employee may also drop their letter of grievance in the suggestion/complaint boxes kept in the production floor. 7 If the problem stated in the letter is found crucial the Factory Manager shall call concerned department head explanation and may order for enquiry. 8 The enquiry shall be done and redressal shall be made as per the company’s standing orders in force. 9 The action taken by the management will be recorded 10 The management shall refer the problems registered and action taken to solve it periodically and thus monitor the situation and ensure that the problems are not repeated. This policy on procedure for redressal is introduced to ensure good working environment in the factory, maintained at all time. NOTICE BY MINISTRY OF LABOUR FOR HANDLING GRIEVANCES DISPUTES AMONG EMPLOYEES!! MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT NOTIFICATION New Delhi , the 15th September, 2010 S.O. 2278(E).- In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (2) of Section 1 of the Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Act, 2010 (24 of 2010), the Central Government hereby appoints the 15 th Day of September, 2010, as the date on which the said Act shall come into force. [F.No.S-11012/1/2007-IR(PL)] RAVI MATHUR, Addl. Secy. THE INDUSTRIAL DIPSUTES (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2010 No.24 OF 2010 [18 th August, 2010] An Act further to amend the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixtieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- 1. (1) This Act may be called the Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Act, 2010. (2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. 2. In the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act), in section 2, -. (i) in clause (a),- (a) in sub-clause (i), for the words â€Å"major port, the Central Government, and†, the words â€Å"major port, any company in which not less than fifty-one per cent of the paid-up share capital is held by the Central Government , or any corporation, not being a corporation referred to in this clause, established by or under any law made by Parliament, or the Central public sector undertaking , subsidiary companies set up by the principal undertaking and autonomous bodies owned or controlled by the Central Government, the Central Government and† shall be substituted: (b) for sub-clause (ii), the following sub-clause shall be substituted, namely:- â€Å"(ii) in relation to any other industrial dispute , including the State public sector undertaking, subsidiary companies set up by the principal undertaking and autonomous bodies owned or controlled by the State Government, the State Government.†; Provided that in case of a dispute between a contractor and the contract labour employed through the contractor in any industrial establishment where such dispute first arose, the appropriate Government shall be the Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, which has control over such industrial establishment.†; (ii) in clause (5), in sub-clause (iv), for the words â€Å"one thousand six hundred rupees†, the words â€Å"ten thousand rupees† shall be substituted. 3. Section 2A of the principal Act shall be numbered as sub-section (1) thereof and after sub-section (l) as so numbered, the following sub-sections shall be inserted, namely:- â€Å"(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 10, any such workman as is specified in sub-section (1) may, make an application direct to the Labour Court or Tribunal for adjudication of the dispute referred to therein after the expiry of three months from the date he has made the application to the Conciliation Officer of the appropriate Government for conciliation of the dispute, and in receipt of such application the Labour Court or Tribunal shall have powers and jurisdiction to adjudicate upon the dispute, as if it were a dispute referred to it by the appropriate Government in accordance with the provisions of this Act and all the provisions of this Act shall apply in relation to such adjudication as they apply in relation to an industrial dispute referred to it by the appropriate Government. (3) The application referred to in sub-section (2) shall be made to the Labour Court or Tribunal before the expiry of three years from the date of discharge, dismissal, retrenchment or otherwise termination of service as specified in sub-section (1).† 4. In section 7 of the principal Act, in sub-section (3), after clause (e), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely:- â€Å"(f) he is or has been a Deputy Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) or Joint Commissioner of the State Labour Department , having a degree in law and at least seven years experience in the labour department after having acquired degree in law including three years of experience as Conciliation Officer: Provided that no such Deputy Chief Labour Commissioner or Joint Labour Commissioner shall be appointed unless he resigns from the service of the Central Government or State Government, as the case may be, before being appointed as the presiding officer; or (g) he is an officer of Indian Legal Service in Grade III with three years experience in the grade.† 5. In section 7A of the principal Act, in sub-section (3), after clause (aa), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely:- â€Å"(b) he is or has been a Deputy Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) or Joint Commissioner of the State Labour Department, having a degree in law and at least seven years experience in the labour department after having acquired degree in law including three years of experience as Conciliation Officer: Provided that no such Deputy Chief Labour Commissioner or Joint Labour Commissioner shall be appointed unless he resigns from the service of the Central Government or State Government, as the case may he, before being appointed as the presiding officer; or (c) he is an officer of Indian Legal Service in Grade III with three years experience in the grade.† 6. After section 9B of the principal Act, for chapter IIB, the following Chapter shall be substituted, namely:- â€Å"CHAPTER IIB GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MACHINERY 9C. (l) Every industrial establishment employing twenty or more workmen shall have one or more Grievance Redressal Committee for the resolution of disputes arising out of individual grievances. (2) The Grievance Redressal Committee shall consist of equal number of members from the employer and the workmen. (3) The chairperson of the Grievance Redressal Committee shall be selected from the employer and from among the workmen alternatively on rotation basis every year. (4) The total number of members of the Grievance Redressal Committee shall not exceed more than six: Provided that there shall be, as far as practicable, one woman member if the Grievance Redressal Committee has two members and in case the number of members are more than two, the number of women members may be increased proportionately. (5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, the setting up of Grievance Redressal Committee shall not affect the right of the workman to raise industrial dispute on the same m atter under the provisions of this Act. (6) The Grievance Redressal Committee may complete its proceedings within forty-five days on receipt of a written application by or on behalf of the aggrieved party. (7) The workman who is aggrieved of the decision of the Grievance Redressal Committee may prefer an appeal to the employer against the decision of Grievance Redressal Committee and the employer shall, within one month from the date of receipt of such appeal, dispose off the same and send a copy of his decision to the workman concerned. Nothing contained in this section shall apply to the workmen for whom there is an established Grievance Redressal Mechanism in the establishment concerned.† 7. In section 11 of the principal Act, after sub-section , the following sub-sections shall be inserted, namely:- â€Å"(9) Every award made, order issued or settlement arrived at by or before Labour Court or Tribunal or National Tribunal shall be executed in accordance with the procedure laid down for execution of orders and decree of a Civil Court under order 21 of the Code of Civil Procedure , 1908. (10) The Labour Court or Tribunal or National Tribunal, as the case may be, shall transmit any award, order or settlement to a Civil Court having jurisdiction and such Civil Court shall execute the award, order or settlement as if it were a decree passed by it.† 8. In section 38 of the principal Act, in sub-section (2),- (i) clause (ab) shall be omitted; (ii) for clause (c), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:- â€Å"(c) the salaries and allowances and the terms and conditions for appointment of the presiding officers of the Labour Court, Tribunal and the National Tribunal including the allowances admissible to members of Courts, Boards and to assessors and witnesses;†.

Friday, November 15, 2019

An Analysis of Cry, the Beloved Country :: Cry the Beloved Country Essays

An Analysis of Cry, the Beloved Country    In Alan Paton's novel Cry, the Beloved Country two characters, Absalom's girl and Gertrude, show the how society in Johannesburg is as a whole. Absalom's girl symbolizes how girls her age are mothers and have even become divorced several times before. On the other hand Gertrude, Kumalo's sister, illustrates the qualities of a young woman who becomes corrupt from Johannesburg's filthy system of stealing, lying, and prostitution. Both of them show the ways of Johannesburg as a whole. When Gertrude is first found, by Kumalo, she is seen as a ragged and dirty person making her living as a prostitute. When Kumalo sees this he thinks of how she could have a much better living if she came back with him. This is, in essence, the same thing that Kumalo and the blacks are trying to do to Johannesburg. These people are trying to fix the corruption that has taken place in the city. Gertrude, like many others who have come to Johannseburg, or who were even born there, were brought to a world where corruption is the key to living. This is the only way to make a decent life and so they stoop to the lowest levels possible, cheating and prostitution. And just like the rest Gertrude can't be saved from what has become. Even though Kumalo tries to save her and the city of Johannesburg from what it has become it is known that once they have become what they have it's impossible to change them back. Absalom's girl, on the other hand, symbolizes how the society gets into many difficulties at a very young age. This girl has already had several husbands and has a child. Like the rest of the population of Johannesburg she has been confronted by something she is not ready to face. Because of the way of life in this city her choices, along with many others, is half chance. Even though it seems to be the right thing it isn't the same outside of the city. Symbolism is also shown through Absalom's girl to Absalom. Many people, in Johannesburg, have spouses who make a living by doing many bad things including stealing. Also, a great number have lost someone because of what they do, either by death or by getting arrested and prosecuted. Either way the people are taking a risk and it is shown by what happens to Absalom.